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A DBMS makes it possible for end users to create, read, update and delete data in a database. The DBMS essentially serves as an interface between the database and end users or application programs, ensuring that data is consistently organized and remains easily accessible.
The DBMS manages three important things: the data, the database engine that allows data to be accessed, locked and modified -- and the database schema, which defines the database’s logical structure. These three foundational elements help provide concurrency, security, data integrity and uniform administration procedures. Typical database administration tasks supported by the DBMS include change management, performance monitoring/tuning and backup and recovery. Many database management systems are also responsible for automated rollbacks, restarts and recovery as well as the logging and auditing of activity.
The DBMS is perhaps most useful for providing a centralized view of data that can be accessed by multiple users, from multiple locations, in a controlled manner. A DBMS can limit what data the end user sees, as well as how that end user can view the data, providing many views of a single database schema. End users and software programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located or on what type of storage media it resides because the DBMS handles all requests.
The DBMS can offer both logical and physical data independence. That means it can protect users and applications from needing to know where data is stored or having to be concerned about changes to the physical structure of data (storage and hardware). As long as programs use the application programming interface (API) for the database that is provided by the DBMS, developers won't have to modify programs just because changes have been made to the database.
With relational DBMSs (RDBMSs), this API is SQL, a standard programming language for defining, protecting and accessing data in a RDBMS.
Popular types of DBMSes:
Popular database models and their management systems includes :
Relational database management system (RDMS) - adaptable to most use cases,but RDBMS Tier-1 products can be quite expensive.
NoSQL DBMS - well-suited for loosely defined data structures that may evolve over time.
In-memory database management system (IMDBMS) - provides faster response times and better performance.
Columnar database management system (CDBMS) - well-suited for data warehouses that have a large number of similar data items.
Cloud-based data management system - the cloud service provider is responsible for providing and maintaining the DBMS.
Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data.
Data independence is the type of data transparency that matters for a centralised DBMS. It refers to the immunity of user applications to changes made in the definition and organization of data. Physical data independence deals with hiding the details of the storage structure from user applications.
Database security refers to the collective measures used to protect and secure a database or database management software from illegitimate use and malicious threats and attacks. It is a broad term that includes a multitude of processes, tools and methodologies that ensure security within a database environment.
Data concurrency means that many users can access data at the same time. Data consistency means that each user sees a consistent view of the data, including visible changes made by the user's own transactions and transactions of other users.
Database administration is the function of managing and maintaining database management systems (DBMS) software. Mainstream DBMS software such as Oracle, IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL Server need ongoing management. As such, corporations that use DBMS software often hire specialized information technology personnel called Database Administrators or DBAs.
An Exception is an error situation, which arises during program execution. When an error occurs exception is raised, normal execution is stopped and control transfers to exceptionhandling part. Exception handlers are routines written to handle the exception. The exceptions can be internally defined (system-defined or pre-defined) or User-defined exception.